SO Amsterdam is an extremely casual place, think European travellers, hippies and the odd oldie. So as you can imagine it's a very casual place (outside of AFW that is) so dress for warmth and comfort. Stick to layers, double pairs of tights and definitely flat shoes!
Get the tram to Amsterdam Central, this is the main area of Amsterdam where all the best coffee shops are hidden. Hill Street Blues has got to be the coolest, most chilled place I've ever been! But be warned, it can get extremely heavy in there in the afternoons. People are allowed to smoke inside you can sometimes feel a tad light headed.
If you fancy a drink but don't feel like taking out a loan for a Whiskey and Coke, head over to the Winston. Happy hour is usually 4-6 where drinks are 2 4 1, meaning two Jamesons are only €6! Above the bar there's a hostel, so you get to meet loads of cool people on their travels. If people start talking to you, don't get scared! I've met loads of travellers, mainly American's, who love a good chat.
Now if you're hungry and feel like a snack you HAVE to go to Burger Bar! It's like no place I've ever been before! You can pick your meat, what weight you want it, and it's all made fresh in front of you. I tend to go for the chicken burger with bacon, blue cheese sauce and extra gerkins. :)
LEIDSEIPLEIN (pronounced lie-zir-plane):
The best place for breakfast in the WHOLE of Amsterdam is Pancake Corner in Leidseiplein. You get everything from a full English, bacon sandwich to of COURSE the best pancakes you'll ever taste! They are like the size of a space ship so if you really wanted you could go half and half with a friend.
If you wanted to get your shop on there's a few cute mid-level boutiques in the area too, as well as a huge Zara, Hollister and H&M. I'm sure I read somewhere an All Saints was being built!